The agreement recognizes the role of non-Party stakeholders in addressing climate change, including cities, other subnational authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. As a contribution to the objectives of the agreement, countries have submitted comprehensive national climate action plans (nationally determined contributions, NDCs). These are not yet enough to reach the agreed temperature objectives, but the agreement traces the way to further action. The Paris Agreement is the first-ever universal, legally binding global climate change agreement, adopted at the Paris climate conference (COP21) in December 2015. The EU and its Member States are among the close to 190 Parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, thus enabling its entry into force on 4 November 2016. For the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to deposit their instruments of ratification. The Paris Agreement provides a sustainable framework guiding the global effort for decades to come. The aim is to raise countries` climate ambition over time. To promote this, the agreement establishes two review processes, each on a five-year cycle. The agreement includes commitments from all countries to reduce their emissions and work together to adapt to adapt to the impacts of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The Agreement provides a pathway for developed nations to assist developing nations in their climate mitigation and adaptation efforts while creating a framework for the transparent monitoring and reporting of countries` climate goals.
It will also enable the Parties to progressively enhance their contributions to tackling climate change, in order to meet the agreement`s long-term goals. Translated into scientific terms, the agreement means meeting the two-degree target with a probability of more than 66% while achieving a 50% chance of limiting 1.5 degrees Celsius. The result is a fixed carbon budget, i.e. a cap on emissions that can still be released to the maximum. As a result, a small risk cushion for feedback or delays in the use of negative emissions can still be issued worldwide by 2100.  Climate issues are the subject of increasing legal action. For example, in 2017, 884 trials were underway in 24 countries around the world where climate issues play a role.  In the future, all states will regularly review progress. The ball is then in the hands of governments: each state must present new and increasingly ambitious goals every five years. Indeed, the commitments made so far alone will not help to curb global warming. The goal is to limit global warming to less than two degrees Celsius and, if possible, to less than 1.5 degrees Celsius. Starting in 2020, each country will have to present current climate change targets every five years.
The new targets must be more ambitious than previous targets. The aim is to gradually increase efforts to combat climate change („the mechanism of ambition“). As part of the climate change policy, Member States in turn are counting their climate change targets in certain sectors. . Paris was therefore only the beginning: all market players now have a long-term and reliable orientation for the necessary transformation. The coming period must be marked by the implementation of the Paris decisions, both internationally and nationally. On October 5, 2016, the European Union, Canada and Nepal ratified the treaty.